Pap smear in Early Detection of Cervical Precancerous Lesions in Erbil


  • Avin Wlya Muhammad
  • Haitham Issa Bahoo



Cervical cancer, Pap smear, Precancerous conditions, Screening


Background and objectives: Cervical cancer remains common. This may be because Iraq has no cervical cancer screening or human papilloma virus vaccination program. The goal of the study is to figure out how well the Pap smear works as a way to find cervical precancerous lesions also identify the prevalence of cervical cancer among women and to identify the potential risk factors for cervical cancer.

Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study conducted using closed end questionnaire tool for the purpose of data collection which started from 1st of October 2021 until 1st of September 2022. Convenient type of sampling was used in collecting data which include 470 women attending to cervical screening unit in Maternity Teaching Hospital, Erbil, Kurdistan Region /Iraq. The questionnaire composed of two main parts including the socio-demographic data of the patients such as age, gender, occupation, education level, religion, income status, age at the marriage, duration of marriage…etc. The result of pap smear and cone biopsy performed during colposcopy procedure to match the accuracy of pap smear.

Results: The findings revealed that 36% of the women aged between 40-49 years, the majority (80%) of them were married at the age of 15-24 years, 30% of their marriage lasted from 4-14 years, and most (72.6%) of them were housewives. The result of sensitivity, accuracy, positive and negative predicted value was equal to 45.6%, 97.7%, 80%, 89.9% respectively. The kappa test was 0.52 which indicate agreement between screening and gold standard test is a diagnosis of cervical cancer is still colposcopy-guided biopsy, which is then staged on the basis of the clinical examination and the outcome of imaging procedures, most obtained results were statistically significant.

Conclusion: Pap smear had a lower sensitivity, but a higher specificity in the current study. The most common complaint of the women was post-coital bleeding. Severe acute cervicitis was the most common finding for the Pap smear.


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How to Cite

Muhammad, A. W. ., & Bahoo, H. I. (2024). Pap smear in Early Detection of Cervical Precancerous Lesions in Erbil. AMJ (Advanced Medical Journal) , 9(1), 89-96.