Gender differences in Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes of Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction


  • Gailan Sherzad Mustafa Medicine Hawler Medical University. Erbil, Kurdistan region, Iraq
  • Abdulkareem Abdulwahab Al-Othman Professor of Medicine. Department of Medicine . College of Medicine. Hawler Medical University. Erbil, Kurdistan region, Iraq



Heart failure, Left ventricular systolic dysfunction, Gender differences, Clinical outcomes


Background and Objectives: Studies evaluating gender differences and outcomes in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction are limited in Iraq. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical characteristics, risk factors, outcomes and severity of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction in both genders.

Patients and Methods: This is a prospective cohort study of 117 patients aged more than 18 years who had been admitted to the Hawler Cardiac Center or medical ward with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction for the period from December 2021 till 30th of October 2022. The clinical characteristics, severity of left ventricular systolic dysfunction and the outcomes over three months were compared between women and men.

Results: One hundred seventeen patients were included in the study, 61 (52.1%) patients were male and 56 (47.9%) were female with male to female ration (1.09:1), p-value (0.017). Women presented with higher incidence of moderate left ventricular systolic dysfunction 36(64.2%), obesity 43 (76.8%) p-value=0.017*, dyslipidemia 27 (48.2%) p-value=0.038, pulmonary hypertension 4 (7.1%), atrial fibrillation 15(26.8%) and high cardiac hospitalization 12 (21.4%), while men have high incidence severe left ventricular  systolic dysfunction 33(54.1% ) p-value=0.046, smoking 42 (68.9%); p-value <0.001 and ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction 28 (45.9%) p-value <0.001. the p-values off all above findings are less than <0.05 respectively

Conclusions: There are major differences in risk factors, clinical presentation and outcomes between both genders. The majority of women presented with moderate left ventricular systolic dysfunction and higher rate of cardiac hospitalization while men presented with severe left systolic dysfunction associated with high incidence of ST-elevation myocardial infarction.


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How to Cite

Mustafa, G. S., & Al-Othman, . A. A. (2024). Gender differences in Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes of Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction. AMJ (Advanced Medical Journal) , 9(2), 11-18.